SPIDER can be used for both qualitative and quantitative studies: Sample size may very in qualitative and quantitative studies. Perspective - from whose perspective is the study done e.g. What are the characteristics of the Population or patient? Comparison - what intervention is this being compared with (a comparison is not always necessary) Evaluation - outcome measures. The PEO framework is used to develop effective scientific questions for qualitative research purposes.. PEO stands for Population, Exposure, and Outcomes. The most common frameworks are: PICO (for clinical / quantitative research topics) PEO, SPIDER or SPICE (for qualitative research topics) CLIP or ECLIPSE (for topics relating to health management, policies, economics) Population/ Patient/ Problem - Who are the users - patients, family, practitioners or community being affected? Design - the form of research used, such as interview or survey. Comparison - is the intervention being compared with another? See the completed example worksheet below. The PEO framework lends itself more to qualitative research. 6 or/1-5 Embase search terms 1 qualitative research/ 2 exp interview/ 3 exp questionnaire/ Slightly different versions of this concept are used to search for quantitative and qualitative reviews, examples are given below. acute care, community, mental health? Client Group -who is the information needed for e.g. Research Type: S ample size may very in qualitative and quantitative studies. The PEO framework can be useful for qualitative topics. Expectation - what is the information needed for? %PDF-1.4 Within social sciences research, SPICE may be more appropriate for formulating research questions: Setting is the context for the question - where, https://libguides.murdoch.edu.au/systematic. Research type - qualitative, quantitative and/or mixed methods. Conclusion: The PEO Model offers flexibility regarding the extent to which occupational performance is addressed, in a setting characterised by short hospital admission stays. The PICO and PEO formats are used commonly in health research and nursing to form a research question. PICO is a popular framework for clinical questions, especially those relating to therapy (intervention) effectiveness. Standardized systematic search strategies facilitate rigor in research. Here is an example of a clinical question that outlines the PICo components: See the completed example worksheet below. Phenomenon of Interest -  reasons for behaviour and decisions, rather than an intervention. What would constitute success? The most common frameworks are: Patient, Population or Problem - who and/or what is my question focussed on? ... PEO is another framework that is especially useful when investigating a prognosis or likelihood of developing a certain condition as a result of a pre-existing condition or exposure. 24 hours after surgery). Qualitative research often uses either the PEO framework where P is population, E is exposure and O is outcome, or the PICo framework where P is population. x��]�$�m�t��n���eY�${$9���u���N��@�/�)���N ���a=ɪfWO��l��v��b��d�����(�a Interest- a defined event, experience, activity or process, Context- a setting or distinct characteristics. The PICO and PEO formats are used commonly in health research and nursing to form a research question. The PICO & PEO formats are used widely in nursing and health research to help manage and break down research questions. STEP 6- Analyse and interpret your results, Alternatives to drugs for controlling headaches in children. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. Using a framework allows you to structure your question by clarifying the main concepts of your topic you want to focus on. Professionals - what health professionals are involved in the service? Evaluation - the outcome measures, Example: Attitudes of carers of people with dementia towards reminiscence therapy. This framework helps identify discrete and searchable aspects of a situation where a patient or population has a … Image sources: Disney Origins Podcast / Disney; Harry Potter Wikia / Warner Bros. PICO is a popular framework for clinical questions, especially those relating to therapy (intervention) effectiveness. changes to lifestyle?). Current search tools focus on retrieval of quantitative research. What are the characteristics of the Population or the patient? Outcomes or themes - what, in relation to the issue, do I want to examine? Questions based on this format identify three concepts: (1) P opulation, (2) E xposure, and (3) O utcome(s) . Patient, Population or Problem- who and/or what is my question focussed on? the patients, the health professionals., the carers etc. There are extensions to the PICO framework available which you can use if your topic has additional concepts: PICOS- here the S stands for study designs (you can use this framework if you are only interested in examining specific designs of study). Exposure - what is the issue I'm interested in? For example, outpatient services, nurse-led clinics, intermediate care. The PEO question format is useful for qualitative research questions. ˏ�|w��W������z�Ӭ�_�jt�������U�e�߿���/��A��/��y�S��8��Q���?�i�����ܽv��?o���Ϳ�De���I�� �q�x1i��93�$�bZ�?��盗_|}����i{r?HЖ�|���'7��7��S��� A+'�|�,��N;��&)�z h}��^:s�n�ח��W���^3:����n�A����=N~����w����vs�Ÿ��#\��Eq!��-�;9��sw�|��@�I{��-������7H����ƒ�y.&�4O�%@,�o�P��޾�p[��{��3G�QDT���U�z��!�>t��&�����%s���0̀�0�ɣ�q�|}�\�?����t�-5�@�G��0��t�p�҇��Ga'c���Ί�L�0ĥ=���i�K��#ʅ����N��\����Fh%��DV��^����_��D)]~��y?��*��8�G��?X�h�������o�3���A�y)d�a����jP��������̂�����0�%e`���ZHFn7����[���A����h��.D�F42竀�5��O���2R.Hb0��p'�6�v�r��QP���L��I�W1���~ �>��Iu�[�D�����E�S��Z@,%��w? Refine results. Using one of these formats will assist you to find out the key concepts of the research question, develop applicable search terms and determine inclusion and exclusion criteria. Does the quality of life (outcome or theme) change when women on HRT (population and problems) are diagnosed with breast cancer (exposure)?

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