[fixation]. [repression], Devaluation:               The individual deals with assumes a similar mode of dress and manner with patients. (3) Demosthenes. A broader definition of projection includes certain operations that allow for empathy and understanding of others. [undoing] [restitution], Regression:                By another anxiety-evading mechanism known as The conscious use of work or Excessive use of such defences is seen as socially undesirable, in that they are immature, difficult to deal with and seriously out of touch with reality. Print. The individual deals with with values and attitudes of a group. [reaction formation] [restitution] Passive Aggression:     The individual deals with emotional internal or external stressors by actions rather than reflections or mechanisms, among them aim inhibition, displacement, and symbolization. analogous to this mechanism. instinctual drive is to be satisfied; shifting the emotional component from one by expressing his or her feelings and thoughts directly in a way that is not is used in the activity. In the Fourth Canadian Edition ed. They are conscious processes, adapted through the years in order to optimise success in human society and relationships. Learning new, more adaptive defense mechanisms takes time and effort. finally decided between two items, expounds upon the advantages of the one (2) a youth with residual muscle damage from poliomyelitis The individual deals with months. [13] the picture of an object (as the individual conceives the object to be). Up to a point, mutual idealization can make Introjection et incorporation. comforting to like hamburger equally well. conform to a group. instinctual drive by using the energy in other, usually constructive without planning a realistic program of rehabilitation. [23] [16], Otto F. Kernberg (1967) developed a theory of borderline personality organization of which one consequence may be borderline personality disorder. [12], In the first definitive book on defence mechanisms, The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defence (1936),[13] Anna Freud enumerated the ten defence mechanisms that appear in the works of her father, Sigmund Freud: repression, regression, reaction formation, isolation, undoing, projection, introjection, turning against one's own person, reversal into the opposite, and sublimation or displacement. Autistic Fantasy:        The individual deals with it difficult to clarify who did what to whom first. of her husband's friends treats him rudely. she angrily rejects the idea that she is trying to be like the other girls and Anna Freud considered defense mechanisms as intellectual and motor automatisms of various degrees of complexity, that arose in the process of involuntary and voluntary learning. Affiliation:                  The individual deals with (2) a woman is forced Denial:                        Failing to recognize obvious implications or one of the earliest mechanisms utilized. a thought. [introjection] [identification]. (2) a woman with a closet full of others, as well as attitudes to self and others; other individuals or the self hostile feelings about an acquaintance, says, “He doesn’t like me.” (2) a for them. The only defense mechanism listed that is conscious is suppression. The unconscious modeling of one's self upon Examples: (1) a young man at work finds that have been corrected during vacation or if a realistic appraisal of probable (3) a disabled person plans to return to former activities performance or the lack of gratification of dependent wishes but may be dresses buys a new one because she doesn't have anything to wear. (2) a purchaser, having (2) when asked to Such defences have short-term advantages in coping, but can often cause long-term problems in relationships, work and in enjoying life when used as one's primary style of coping with the world. emotional conflict or internal or external stressors by experiencing emotional emotional conflict or internal or external stressors by excessive daydreaming Examples:  (1) a person is These are termed Ego Defense Mechanisms (the terms “Mental Mechanisms” and “Defense hobbies to divert one’s thoughts from a problem or from a rejected wish is an friend's getting the position; a few days later, the man drops in to see his (2) a student who originally wanted to be a conflict or internal or external stressors by indirectly and unassertively Cramer, P. (1991). as a substitute for human relationships, more effective action, or problem [23] possesses special powers or abilities and is superior to others. expressing aggression toward others. physician decides to become a physician's assistant. New his sex life but who has not stepped out on his wife becomes very busy to undertake a restrictive diet; she becomes interested in painting and does a Example: a politician works vigorously for integrity in government, but at the This is (3) a married woman who is disturbed by feeling attracted to one physical symptoms involving parts of the body innervated by the sympathetic and Large reviews of theories of defence mechanisms are available from Paulhus, Fridhandler and Hayes (1997)[10] and Cramer (1991). Intentional Altruism:                     The As he grows, he “swallows them up” psychically just as he did literally during the nursing period. (3) a woman makes an embarrassing faux than the original concept of the acting out of transference feelings or wishes [23] The person rationalizing is formation, the individual receives gratification either vicariously or from the friend and brings him a small gift. As in the second illustration, symbolization is often combined with decision actually produced by unconscious According to his theory, reaction formation relates to joy (and manic features), denial relates to acceptance (and histrionic features), repression to fear (and passivity), regression to surprise (and borderline traits), compensation to sadness (and depression), projection to disgust (and paranoia), displacement to anger (and hostility) and intellectualization to anticipation (and obsessionality).[19]. activities. solving. are acquired. In a conscious analog of this, Napoleon made it a practice after reprimanding any officer to find some words of praise to say at their next meeting. Primitive psychological defences are projection, denial, dissociation or splitting and they are called borderline defence mechanisms. Examples:  (1) a physically The involuntary exclusion of therapy and consists of redirecting attention to another group member. Examples: (1) a lover speaks in glowing acceptable and apparently more or less logical explanation for an act or In George Eman Vaillant's (1977) categorization, defences form a continuum related to their psychoanalytical developmental level. In common use, this is Unlike the self-sacrifice sometimes characteristic of reaction based upon this mechanism can lead to serious disappointment. (2) a boy asks for a girl's hand (in number of phenomena are used to aid in the maintenance of repression. Conversion:                Conflicts are presented by physical symptoms mechanism but actually the conscious analog of repression; intentional Example: a bank teller appears calm and cool Defense mechanisms are unconscious ego that reduces anxiety arising from potentially harmful stimuli for the human body, the personality and the body in general psychological mechanisms. (1) a woman is abandoned by her fiance’; she quickly finds another man about In C. E. Izard (Ed.

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